#299 1978 Brazilian Grand Prix

2022-08-14 00:00

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#1978, Fulvio Conti,

#299 1978 Brazilian Grand Prix

The second of the two early-season Championship Grand Prix races takes place in Brazil fourteen days after Andretti’s runaway win in Buenos Aires. Thi


Thursday, January 26, 1978, James Hunt is the fastest at the end of a free practice session (not valid for the starting lineup) held at the Rio circuit in preparation for the Brazilian Grand Prix, scheduled for Sunday, January 29, 1978. The scorching day - in Rio, it's almost 40 °C in the shade - poses considerable physical endurance challenges for the drivers. To counter this, Ferrari's pits install large fans to cool their drivers during stops. Hunt, on the other hand, defends himself from the heat by having a whole bottle of water poured into his collar every time he stops at the pits. Along with Hunt, Ferrari drivers Reutemann and Villeneuve also stand out, marking the second and third best times, respectively. The Argentine Ferrari driver says:


"Compared to the tests carried out last week, I found the track transformed. It's a layout that changes depending on the temperature, and the car becomes oversteering or understeering. It is therefore quite tricky to guess the ideal tires and setup".


Villeneuve is also particularly satisfied with his performance.


"Today, I was faster than in the other tests, and this gives me the confidence to further improve my lap time. The car worked wonderfully, and the heat was bearable for me. The workouts in recent days have done me good. The track is beautiful, but it's difficult to make overtakes".


Emerson Fittipaldi's fourth time with his new Copersucar raises some eyebrows. For most of the practice, the Brazilian driver couldn't drive at full speed because something was wrong with the fuel pump. Then, unexpectedly, a good lap. Some suggest there might have been a timing error. Problems also arise for Andretti and Peterson, two of the drivers favored to win the race. The Italian-American complains about handling issues and is not satisfied with the track:


"It's a layout that lacks character, offering no driving pleasure. It would be fine for go-kart races. On the other hand, the heat is tremendous, and staying in the cockpit for a while is a real suffering".


His teammate, the Swede Peterson, tries a new six-speed gearbox. But after a few laps, he is forced to stop because he can engage only two gears. Before the end of the practice, the mechanics solve the problem, and Peterson manages to record the fifth time of the day, thus preceding his teammate. There is also a lot of work in the Brabham-Alfa Romeo box, with Niki Lauda almost continuously driving for both practice sessions.


"We have aerodynamic problems, but everything else is in order. The track is good, although a bit too undulating. The intense heat is the most formidable opponent".


Brambilla is also in trouble; after starting training late due to an oil leak, he has to stop at the pits to check the brakes that were not working properly. When he restarts, at the braking point of a turn, he has the unpleasant surprise of feeling the brake pedal go all the way down. He manages skillfully to control the car, which goes straight into the sand without suffering any damage. The new Arrows team, born from the split that occurred at Shadow, debuts in Formula 1 in today's practice, with Riccardo Patrese as the driver. The car looks great and shows good performance. There are also novelties in the tire war between Goodyear and Michelin. On Thursday, the American company provides two new types of tires marked with the numbers 92 and 93 to some teams; these are soft compound tires. However, the French brand won't stand by, as a new type of tires is expected to arrive on Saturday, which will be tested on the Ferraris. On Friday, January 27, 1978, when it's time to get serious, Mario Andretti reappears. 


A bit in the shadow on Thursday during free practice, the Italian-American driver presents himself with his usual determination, leaving no chance for the others. After resolving the small problems that plagued his Lotus, Andretti immediately sets a strong pace and, at the end of the day, is the fastest in both official practice sessions.


"It's almost too easy. The car was perfect, and I didn't experience any issues. The heat was also less, which allowed a significant improvement in lap times in general".


Do you think you can further improve your performance?


"It will all depend on the weather conditions; I'll try".


After Andretti, the second fastest is James Hunt, who proves to be particularly comfortable on this track. The English driver, 0.4s behind after the first practice session, pushes to the maximum in the last hour of training to surpass the Lotus driver. He doesn't succeed but shaves off a remarkable 0.27s from his previous time. However, the surprise of the day comes from the local idol, former World Champion Emerson Fittipaldi. The Brazilian, absolute leader after the first session, surpasses himself and marks the third-best time at the end of the practice.


"I am naturally happy with this result because it rewards the great effort made by my entire team in recent years. The car is finally in good shape. We've worked hard, and with the technical input of Caliri, who completely redesigned the aerodynamic part, we've reached a good point".


For Ferrari, it's a day without notable highlights. Reutemann is fourth, and Villeneuve is fifth. The drivers are roughly in line with the best times recorded during the tests of the previous week. Marco Piccinini, Ferrari's press officer, says:


"We've worked, as always, with the race in mind, and we are also in good shape with the tires. Carlos has driven both the race car and the reserve car, while Villeneuve has fine-tuned his machine. Our times gain more value when considering that our drivers set them after many laps always with the same tires, while our opponents, to achieve the best results, used performance tires of a soft compound, forcing them to stop every two or three laps".


On the other hand, the Brabham-Alfa Romeo team faces numerous problems. Lauda doesn't go beyond the ninth time, while his teammate, John Watson, is only sixteenth. Engineer Carlo Chiti says:


"The cars have significant aerodynamic problems because the changes made after the Argentine Grand Prix have practically thrown off the balance of the cars".


To solve the problems, three different wings with various inclinations have been tested, and on Lauda's car, the nose used in the previous season has also been mounted.


"With this adjustment, the car performs better, but it doesn't mean that we are going back. The BT45C is a transitional car, waiting for the new BT46, and all these changes are precisely for the development of the new model".


Lotus also gives up on its new six-speed gearbox after Peterson remains stationary for the entire first practice session due to a gearbox breakage. The classic Hewland gearbox is then reinstalled on the Swede's car. Vittorio Brambilla, in the first hour and a half of training, stays almost the whole time in the pits waiting for the mechanics to change a broken bearing. In the last session, the Italian driver improves his first performance by over a second, but when everything seems to be going well, he is once again stranded due to a broken water radiator pierced by a stone. Lamberto Leoni, still dealing with handling and gear issues, marks the twenty-second time. Patrese, with the many defects related to a completely new car, cannot do better than the twenty-sixth time. Arturo Merzario is immediately in trouble; after a few laps, a water hose bursts on his car, and the engine breaks. On Saturday, January 28, 1978, a splendid Ronnie Peterson becomes the dominator of the second and decisive day of the Brazilian Grand Prix qualifying. The Swedish driver, with the exceptional time of 1'40"45, sets the absolute best time and will start in pole position on Sunday. The first rows see a great fight in this last hour of practice. Peterson, considered by many as finished, immediately stands out and, after a few minutes, stops the clock at the time of 1'41"0. However, others don't stand by, and it's Reutemann who promptly responds, going below the 1'41"0 limit. In a day of grace, Peterson replicates and sets a time of 1'40"65. In the battle, as expected, Andretti joins in, and after half an hour, he sets the best time, clocking in at 1'40"62. Hunt sets off from the pits with qualifying tires and in a few laps overtakes everyone, stopping the clock at 1'40"53. The English champion stops immediately after and gets out of the car, now sure of the pole position. However, Lotus doesn't give up, and Peterson manages once again to surpass himself, securing the first position with a time of 1'40"45. It's a thrilling practice, drawn out to the extreme, which sees six drivers enclosed within just 0.52s at the end. Peterson's performance is a welcome return to the top, confirming the great capabilities of this driver overshadowed in recent years by not particularly competitive cars.


"My Lotus is certainly not the fastest car on the team, but I managed to find the ideal setup for this track. As for tomorrow, I don't want to make predictions. It will depend a lot on the start".


Alongside Peterson on the front row, James Hunt will start. The McLaren driver is a bit disappointed by the last exploit of the Swede, but with his usual boldness, he promises great things for Sunday. Mario Andretti, who finishes third in the practice, missed the appointment with the pole position.


"I could have certainly done better, but in the last crucial laps, I was hindered by Divina Galica, who braked too abruptly in a turn, and I lost the right moment. I'll try to make up for it in the race".


Reutemann is also one of the protagonists of the day. The Argentine drives for a long time and manages to set the fourth-best time towards the end. However, the mood of the Ferrari driver is not at its best; he responds to questions with monosyllables, and as soon as he gets out of the car, he retreats to his team's trailer. On the other hand, the other Ferrari driver, the young Gilles Villeneuve, is more talkative, progressing from practice to practice, and in these two days, he has been really good. Just 0.04s behind his teammate Reutemann, on Saturday, the Canadian accomplishes the feat and goes below the 1'41"0 limit. Emerson Fittipaldi fails to repeat Friday's good performance. Due to a half-shaft break, the Brazilian is forced to push the car along the track to try to return to the pits. However, he encounters a strict marshal on his way, rightly preventing him from crossing the track. At this point, the nerves of the former World Champion snap, and Fittipaldi launches a series of punches at the unfortunate marshal. Still in the shadows are the Brabham men, always struggling with cars that they can't tune. Watson, still unwell, practically gives up participating in the last practice session because his car, without the old-type nose, of which there is only one available for Lauda while a new one is coming from England for him, complains of poor grip. The Northern Irish driver takes advantage of this to rest in the pits, and only in the last minutes, he climbs into Lauda's car to adjust his time; otherwise, he risks being excluded from the starting grid. 


Lamberto Leoni, finally with the car in good shape, performs well and manages to set the seventeenth time. Despite problems with the fuel system that force him to carry over a hundred liters of gasoline for all the practice sessions (otherwise, the engine stalls in left turns due to fuel shortage), Riccardo Patrese qualifies in eighteenth position. Merzario, Cheever, and Brambilla, on the other hand, fail to qualify. Merzario, in his own car, goes off the track immediately while following Depailler and ruins a wheel mount. The driver is forced to stop at the pits for a long time and only in the last minutes can make a few laps, setting the same time as the last qualifier, Rupert Keegan. Still, since his time was recorded after Keegan's, the qualification goes to the English driver. Cheever is left stranded almost immediately due to the breakage of the right rear suspension. The unpleasant surprise is the exclusion of Vittorio Brambilla.


"To say that I am disappointed is an understatement, but I couldn't have done more than this. The clutch wasn't disengaging properly, the setup wasn't the best. It's the first time it happens to me not to qualify, and I must say it really hurts".


Vittorio doesn't want to reveal too much, but it is clear that he is very angry. His car is not taken care of as he would like, and even the changes he suggested, which have proven decisive on other cars, are not implemented. The partnership between Brambilla and Surtees is in full crisis. On Sunday, January 29, 1978, the day is sweltering, the sun in the vertical position burns the over 65.000 spectators who have been present since the early hours on the huge stands, and the asphalt sizzles as the twenty-three cars line up for the start. Despite being qualified, the Frenchman Jarier is absent; he has to give up his car to Mass, whose single-seater was leaking fuel from a tank. During the reconnaissance lap, Leoni is forced to withdraw due to the breakage of the right driveshaft. At the start of the Brazilian Grand Prix, Reutemann makes a good start, surprising everyone from the second row and immediately taking the lead. By the first lap, the Argentine is already leading with a significant advantage, ahead of Peterson, Hunt, Andretti, Fittipaldi, Tambay, Villeneuve, Stuck, and Lauda. The Ferrari driver sets the pace and in a few laps builds a gap of 10 seconds between him and his pursuers. Hunt overtakes Peterson and settles into second place, while during the fourth lap, Watson and Patrese collide. The Northern Irish driver resumes the race in last place. Meanwhile, Fittipaldi progresses well, passing both Villeneuve and Peterson. The standing ovation from the crowd encourages his comeback, now in third place. During the 15th lap, Peterson and Villeneuve collide. At the end of the long straight in front of the stands, the Canadian driver tries to pass the Swede on the inside, both delay braking, and the two cars collide. Villeneuve's car lifts slightly and falls in front of Peterson's. Both enter the sand as the rest of the pack overtakes them. 


They both return to the pits, with Peterson changing one front tire and Villeneuve two. The Swede rejoins, but after less than half a lap, his left rear suspension fails, forcing him to retire. Peterson waits for Villeneuve on the track and, as he passes, shows him fists. During the 17th lap, Scheckter also exits the track after a slight collision with Tambay, breaking a steering tie rod. During the 25th lap, Hunt abandons due to going off the track. In the lead, Reutemann is now unassailable, and the focus of the race shifts to the battle between Lauda and Stuck for fourth place. The German holds his position securely, but during the 26th lap, he retires due to fuel feed issues. During the 35th lap, Villeneuve ends up in the safety nets after taking a corner too enthusiastically. The remaining laps are a triumphant march for Reutemann, who doubles almost everyone with confidence. The race seems decided, at least for the top positions, but seven laps from the end, Andretti is forced to slow down because the gearbox locks. The Italo-American is thus overtaken by Fittipaldi and Lauda. At the finish, Reutemann stops in front of the checkered flag and crosses the finish line with raised arms. At the end, only Fittipaldi, Lauda, and Andretti are on the lead lap with Reutemann. It must be said that Brazil brings luck to Carlos Reutemann. Last year at Interlagos, the Argentine secured his first and only victory with Ferrari, and this year in Rio, he repeated it with a dominant win. After a successful start, Reutemann had no further issues, and his race was a solitary ride for the remaining laps. When Carlos crosses the finish line, the Ferrari pit erupts. While the mechanics embrace, a group of Argentine fans, led by the spirited wife Mimicha, sings:


"Ale ale Lole, ale ale Lole".


Michelin technicians, who deserve much credit for this victory, are besieged by journalists, and Goodyear's men are the first to congratulate them. Freed from the grip of the fans, Reutemann says:


"After yesterday's practice, I really hoped to win. As soon as I started, I saw in the mirrors that the others were behind, so I immediately pushed to increase the lead. The car, the engine, and the tires gave me no problems. Even the heat, perhaps because I was in the lead, all focused on not making any mistakes, did not bother me. Now it's too early to talk about the championship, but this year starts well".


Tomaini, Ferrari's technical manager, confesses:


"I hoped for this victory because yesterday's practice was very significant for us, and we had gathered valuable information that allowed us to look confidently at the race. During the last hour, we were evenly matched with the others for pole position. Today, the experience in Argentina served us well because when a defeat is taken in the right sense, it is the most effective stimulus to work hard".


Tomaini, skillful and modest as always, doesn't say it explicitly, but from his words, it is inferred that Ferrari could have placed Villeneuve in second if the Canadian had not collided with Peterson.


"I had overtaken him, but Peterson closed me off, so we both went off the track. After the pit stop to replace the two tires, I had some problems with the brakes. I may have arrived a bit too fast at the braking point on the straight in front of the stands, the car in braking got unsettled, and I slid into the nets".


It's a real shame that Villeneuve couldn't have a regular race. From what he showed in the early laps, it can certainly be inferred that the second-place was within his reach. The joy of the Ferrari fans naturally involves the Michelin team. still amazed to see a car fitted with their tires leading the pack. Blanchet, one of the technicians of the French company, says:


"We made a mistake in Argentina, but it seems that we have corrected it in the best way here".


Dupasquier, Michelin's manager, echoes:


"Not bad at all, anyway, we must not rest on our laurels; we still have to work a lot because our experience in Formula 1 is still limited. This victory is a source of pride for us because only perfect tires in every sense could allow Reutemann to dominate as he did".


The sad gaucho, Ferrari, and Michelin have achieved their great, sensational revenge. After the criticisms - especially from his fellow countrymen - directed at him for the colorless seventh place in the Argentine Grand Prix, on the scorching, smoking circuit of Rio de Janeiro, Carlos Reutemann was in the lead from start to finish, a race in which his merits are obviously added to the brilliance of the car and the perfect response of the tires. For Ferrari, it is a huge satisfaction, for Michelin, the first big triumph in Formula 1. a Sunday to remember. Suddenly, the Maranello team and the French company go from potential performers in only an experimental season to the role of major protagonists, even if Gilles Villeneuve's retirement slightly dims the team's joy. 


Andretti, with his Lotus, had given the impression until ten laps from the end of calmly holding second place, thinking about World Championship points, but then the car had a sudden dip in the gearbox, and to the imaginable jubilation of the Brazilian crowd, Emerson Fittipaldi overtook him on the outside, rising to second place in the wake of the unassailable Reutemann. And shortly after, even Lauda, with a very regular performance in the Brabham-Alfa, passed him on the inside in the corner, relegating Andretti to a fourth place that is equally valid but does not satisfy the Italo-American driver, who lost three points in the end that he might regret later, even though he now remains the secure leader of the World Championship standings. Reutemann's victory and Fittipaldi's second place allow the unleashed radio and television commentators from Brazil and Argentina to speak of a South American triumph. All the fears of the eve suddenly vanish in the face of this victory. Reutemann had seemed closed, sullen, all focused on tire problems during the week. The memory of the Argentine Grand Prix still burned, but the escalating finish after the tire change (an experience that was useful here) already comforted him a little. The victory rewards the work of Ferrari and Michelin technicians. obviously rewards Reutemann, who can finally smile after an unhappy moment. The Argentine is a different kind of driver. He is a loner, loves family life, is accused of being too few words, of being also a bad public relations man for the team he races for. Sunday evening, he gives a little more in interviews; the occasion allows it. The first five laps already clearly outlined the positions. If there were improvements, they were linked to the sensational series of eliminations, which hit Keegan, stuck in place at the start, then Scheckter, Peterson, Hunt. Stuck, who was having a nice duel with Lauda for fifth place, and Tambay. Villeneuve, the protagonist of a race that leaves no doubt about his courage, can also raise new doubts about his rather aggressive driving. Starting seventh from a row led by Reutemann, with Hunt and Peterson fighting behind, and then Andretti, the Canadian in the Ferrari was already in fifth place behind Fittipaldi by the tenth lap. The Brazilian, starting an advance that would have thrilled the audience, passed Peterson on the inside, and then Villeneuve went after the Swedish Lotus. 


The two touched. Peterson may have closed off his rival; they had to stop at the pits for a check. The Canadian resumed but then stopped definitively in the 36th lap, ending up in the safety nets of the circuit. Peterson had to give up after a couple of laps due to a suspension failure. So Lauda was able to gradually climb the positions with an uneventful but profitable race. After all, the difficulties of his Brabham-Alfa were known. Rio de Janeiro reserved its hottest day for the Grand Prix. Blazing sun, not a breath of wind, with very rare illusions of coolness at times, a light heat haze on the horizon. The torrid temperature obviously tested the drivers to the extreme. The asbestos suit, as useful and prudent as ever, obviously complicates things further in situations like this. Patrick Tambay, one of the retirees, says he lost seven kilograms between practice and the race. The chaos of traffic around the circuit reaches its peak for the return, but already in the morning, the last kilometers to get around the circuit were a real ordeal for many. And to think that many people had left Rio de Janeiro on Saturday night and overnight, staying in a tent near the circuit or on the beach in Barra, not far away. The drivers, as expected, were brought to the circuit by helicopter, directly from the square usually reserved for the Sheraton hotel parking lot. From 7:00 a.m., the two small Votec taxi planes shuttled continuously. Along the roads, quite a few broken-down cars created traffic jams; the police did their best, but not always were the officers able to give clear directions. And it must be said that it is now becoming a rule that the winners of the Grand Prix are the first to escape from the scene of triumph. So Andretti in Buenos Aires, so Carlos Reutemann in Rio. The Argentine driver of Ferrari escapes from the circuit by helicopter, and two hours after the race, he is already at the airport with his wife Mimicha. They were already home in Santa Fé by night. On Monday, January 30, 1978, the victory of the Ferrari-Michelin-Reutemann trio logically finds wide coverage in South American newspapers, even if for the Brazilians, the attraction is the second place of Fittipaldi's Copersucar. A coverage in which the Ferrari somewhat disappears, in terms of merits, because it seems entirely normal that the car worked perfectly. The newspapers point out:


"It was the same in Buenos Aires. If anything, the flaws were different".


The tires, of course. It is the central theme of all discussions before and after the Grands Prix, and it will be the same next time, on Saturday, March 4, 1978, in Kyalami, South Africa. Because Michelin admits:


"We hit the right tires even sooner than hoped".


And because on the opposite front, Andretti comments:


"Besides being cheated by the gearbox in the end, this time we didn't quite get the tires right. Carlos was untouchable for me yesterday, but being two seconds per lap slower is too much; something wasn't working. However, the second place suited me well before the trouble that allowed Fittipaldi, very skillful, and Lauda to overtake me. I must say, though, that I'm not complaining; in these conditions, I feared losing even more positions".


Michelin used tires from the S9-S10 family, just to give a reference to the codes used by the technicians. From the same family but still different from those in Buenos Aires, both in terms of compound and structure. For the French company, it is a historic victory, the success of a radial tire, stiffer and less sensitive to heat. It is said in the paddock that even Goodyear is considering radial tires, and they will think about it more seriously from Sunday, the day when, after eighty consecutive victories in Grands Prix, its magnificent streak (107 total wins for the company in Formula 1) started in 1972 by Fittipaldi in the Italian Grand Prix at Monza was broken. For Ferrari (and Michelin), the victory in Rio de Janeiro translates into renewed enthusiasm, confirming the validity of certain directions, but it will certainly not slow down their commitment. So much so that next week Reutemann will be at Fiorano to test and retest the T3, with the South African Grand Prix as the goal, although after the Brazilian Grand Prix, won by the T2, there will be no hurry. As for Carlos Reutemann, the Argentine journalists present at the Grand Prix (the same ones who criticize him, saying he is too sensitive to the weight of responsibilities) argue that in Italy, he is not appreciated because Ferrari does not have Italian drivers. It is easy to counter that he might find antipathy from Villeneuve, the newcomer, but not Carlos, who was already there last year alongside Niki. It is certainly not the Argentine, today, who can be discussed. Different, however, are the impressions and comments regarding the race conduct of Gilles Villeneuve, who once again paid for his inexperience, while confirming the remarkable underlying qualities unanimously recognized to him. Peterson confirmed himself to be a rather formidable driver in the pack, too unscrupulous not to say incorrect.


"Gilles Villeneuve showed that he will soon be one of the greats".


Writes the Brazilian newspaper O Globo in the evaluations examining the race conduct of each driver one by one. It is the same opinion Fangio expressed on the eve of the race. Ferrari is satisfied; perhaps they hope that experience will come quickly. In Brazil, without the sin of youth, in the attempt to overtake Peterson, the Canadian could have come second, completing the triumphant day for the Maranello team. As the drivers leave Rio, the cars are packed to be shipped to South Africa. The organizers are doing the math. Overall, they are satisfied. Few incidents on the roads, everything is regular on the track; it almost seems like a miracle on a day of such total confusion and suffocating heat. A victim of the heat was a timekeeper, Marcos Campestrini, from Sao Paulo, drowned in the Jacarepaguà lagoon, not far from the racetrack, where he had jumped in search of refreshment before the competition. From the Brazilian Grand Prix, one could not have expected more: Carlos Reutemann's splendid victory with Ferrari, the first success for Michelin tires, the first victory for a radial tire, and the return to the limelight of a great and likable champion like Emerson Fittipaldi. The overwhelming superiority of Reutemann, the 312-T2, and its tires had stunned the audience, seeing the red Maranello car pull away inexorably from the others in just a few laps, they had become silent. To wake them up and keep them awake, Fittipaldi himself took care of it with a beautiful race.


"It was a hard-fought second place because a few minutes before the start, we realized that the starter motor of my Copersucar wasn't working. The reserve car was ready and set up like the other car, but I had doubts about the engine because it was the one that, used in the free practice on my number one car, seemed not good to me. For this reason, we had reversed the Cosworths on the two cars, and so, just before the start, I found myself having to use a car with an engine that didn't give me confidence. In the race, however, everything went well, but until the last lap, I drove with my heart in my throat, fearing to be betrayed by the engine".


After years of work, never really repaid in one way or another, Fittipaldi has returned to the podium. To whom do you attribute the merit?


"There is no one person or thing that deserves all the credit. It is the victory of the entire team, the driver, the technicians, and the mechanics. A decisive role in the final phase of the car's development was played by the two new technicians working for us, Bellamy and Caliri. Their work is very helpful".


Fittipaldi's second place, which is a big success, also speaks Italian thanks to engineer Giacomo Caliri, owner with a partner of Studio Fly in Modena. What was the work done by your Studio Fly on the Copersucar?


"In early October, we started working on Fittipaldi's car. We designed the entire aerodynamic part, suspensions, and other parts, except for the chassis. Due to the short time available, we were forced to use the existing one".


Did this second place give you more joy than a victory when you were at Ferrari?


"They are different things and cannot be compared. I stayed at Ferrari for many years, designed sports and Formula 1 cars, was in charge of the sports car team, and also the Formula 1 team. Then, one day, as occasionally happens at Ferrari, I drew the short straw and had to leave. However, even in Maranello, I had some good satisfactions before the dark moments. Fittipaldi's placement is a source of pride for me and confirms the validity of my Studio".


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