With the conquest of the title of World Champion, and the triumph of Indianapolis, the Lotus confirms that it is today the fastest and most versatile Formula 1 car. Part of his success is certainly due to Jim Clark, but the same credit goes to Colin Chapman, who of the Lotus and owner, director and designer. Like that of Ferrari in Italy, the name of Chapman in England has now become the symbol of motorsport. Colin Chapman is a modest-looking man. He is thirty-six years old, is of medium stature, he flaunts a principle of baldness and mustache at the carabiner. He has an iron will and an inexhaustible energy, concealed in the courteous and elegant ways so common to the English. His programs - like his ambition - know no limili. In four years, from 1962 to 1965, his small craft house became a complex modern industry, connected to Ford among other things. Lotus does not come out of its assembly lines enough to meet the demand of enthusiasts; and Ford does not produce enough Cortina-Lotus 1500 for the normal market. From his headquarters in Hornsey, North London, Colin Chapman is preparing to move into the Essex countryside, in a former military aviation camp. The move to the new formula, next season, does not scare him: either Ford or the B.R.M., the rival house, will provide him with the engine, so far built by Coventry-Climax, which however announced his retirement from competitions. With the B.R.M., Chapman is indeed studying a car for the next edition of the Indy 500, spurred by this year's huge gains. His parents wanted him to become a scientist, and they sent him to university in London to study chemical engineering. The young man graduated in 1951, at the age of twenty-two, without failing a single exam, and assumed a profitable job in a laboratory of an oil company.
But the passion of motors, cultivated, since he was a child, overwhelmed him. Colin Chapman began repairing cars for friends and acquaintances, retouching sports models and gran turismos, overhauling racing cars, all in his free time. In 1953, gathering all his savings, he opened a workshop. He worked there for half a day, for the other half background in the lab, from where they didn't want to let him go. But in 1951, he took the big step, resigned from the oil company, and produced his first car, a Lotus with an MG engine. He did well, and after a few months he took part in a competition for the first time, with the Lotus Mark VI, the progenitor of a numerous series of beautiful cars. At first there were only disappointments and bitterness. The best placement was achieved in 1957 by a then unknown driver, Graham Hill, in an English race: sixth place. Colin Chapman was so excited that he offered Hill a good contract: but the driver refused to move to the B.R.M. Three years later a promising twenty-and-year-old young man, Jim Clark, joined Lotus, and the victories followed one another. It is known that in 1962 Clark lost the world title at the last Grand Prix, that of South Africa, after having long led the drivers' standings. But Colin Chapman was not discouraged: in seven years, alone, he had passed famous teams such as the Cooper and almost reached the B.R.M. For some time his style as a designer aroused violent controversy. Focusing his focus more on the chassis than on the engine, Chapman produced cars of extraordinary shape, but of slim balance. He was accused of having no respect for human life, of being willing to have fatal accidents, and after a while the rumors went out. Colin Chapman will work for the future on the technical formula that made him the magician of British motorsport. At the age of thirty-six, Colin Chapman has, as an engineer, a lifetime ahead of him. His name, like that of Ferrari, is destined to enter the sports legend. not solve a problem sacrificing his names to success. In truth, the Lotus are as safe as the other racing cars. About him Stirling Moss said:
"He will always be able to beat his rivals, albeit to a very narrow extent, at the same engine power. No other engineer in the world has his ability to make the most of the structure and shape of machines".
Trento-Bondone, Cesana-Sestriere, Freiburg-Schauinsland are called the victories of Ludovico Scarfiotti in the European Mountain Championship. Three races, three convincing successes achieved at the wheel of a car, the Dino-Ferrari, which seems to have been designed and built specifically for uphill racing, such are the skills of maneuverability and road holding that it is equipped with. Scarfiotti has not yet managed to surpass in the championship standings his most dangerous opponent, the German Mitter, the first driver of Porsche, but it now seems to be a matter of little time, not even a month to be precise, as the next competition, the Ollon-Villars, will take place on Sunday, August 29, 1965. Too optimistic? Maybe, but the results really speak for themselves. The Italian driver now has 27 points, detached from Mitter by 4 points, while Hans Herrmann, the main representative of the Abarth, remained at 22 points, not having been able to participate in the Freiburg race for the not perfect tuning of his 2000 Sport, a new model finished a few days ago in the Corso Marche plant. If it was impossible for Herrmann to hinder the march of the Dino and Scarfiotti, Mitter ran to the limit of his abilities and the machine, which the Stuttgart House had taken care of with extreme attention and meticulousness. He only managed to contain the detachment (less than two seconds). A difficult year for the German, who came to reap the legacy of Edgard Barth and suddenly found himself faced not only the traditional and well-known rivals Abarth, but also the Dino, led moreover by a man of the likes of Scarfiotti. The latter, for its part, is giving in the current European Championship (which he already won in 1962) yet another demonstration of his skill leading to the alpine hills, on difficult and relatively little known routes, the Dino with the same quiet security offered on all the main circuits of the world.
The Ollon and Gaisberg competitions remain to be played in the Mountain Championship. The final ranking will be obtained by adding up the five best placements: the Dino-Scarflotti binomial all that remains is to hold on, if bad luck does not get its hands on Ferrari will go another prestigious laurel, to Ludovico a Cup to add to those that already fill a room in his apartment in Porto Recanati, in the Marche. Meanwhile, in Sweden, in Karlskoga, in the Formula 2 race called Kanonloppet, on Monday, August 9, 1965 Jim Clark loses the unbeaten record of this sporting season. The new World Champion, who came off the track in the convulsive early stages of the race, resumes running without his Lotus having apparently suffered damage. Instead, on the seventh lap the engine, damaged, stops forcing the Scotsman to retreat. The critics who for a long time attributed Clark's successes to the valuable help of luck, first of all the Australian driver-builder Jack Brabham, will have been a little sick. Just Brabham, ironically, imposed himself in the Swedish race, thus demonstrating that to win, at least once, he needed Jim's absence. What about Clark? He took the first defeat with extreme philosophy, showing that he was not bitter at all. After all, the Kanonloppet, despite being a very well-known competition in Scandinavia, has no importance outside the local scope. Sports motorsport has thousands of fans in Sicily, perhaps more than in any other Italian region. They find themselves among the notables of Palermo and the centers of the province as well as among the shepherds and peasants of the most remote countries of the Madonie. The former, rich and less rich, have - so to speak - a valid justification: they own a car. Typically these are powerful and fast cars, or at least models prepared (perhaps by the local mechanic) and, in the absence of super-performance, adorned with visible stripes and coats of arms. But the others, those who go on foot or on horseback?
Perhaps it is a natural instinct, a curiosity that dates back to the beginning of the century with the dispute of the first editions of the Targa Florio, a fact is that everyone loves engines, and looks at the cars with special attention, most of the time reserved only to representatives of the fair sex. And when a car race passes on the roads of their home they unleash their enthusiasm. It is enough to attend a Targa Florio once to realize it, to even be baffled. And the proof that Sicilians seriously love motor racing can also be achieved by browsing the competition calendar. Dozens of races, small or large, take place throughout the year. They have their ideal summit in the Targa Florio, which recalls hundreds of thousands of people along the winding and winding path. Lately another event has been a great technical and spectacular success: Enna's Motorsport August. It began with the first trophy of the Automobile Club of Sicily, it continued with the Southern Motorcycle Grand Prix and that of Pergusa for Formula 3 cars, it will end on Sunday, August 15, 1965 with the most anticipated test, the Mediterranean Grand Prix. Formula 1 will be on stage, first actor Jim Clark, the new World Champion, on his debut on an Italian track after winning the title. With the Scotsman they will be valuable drivers like Brabham, Siffert, Rindt, Bonnier, Colin Davis, perhaps Dan Gurney. Ferraris and, of course, Surtees and Bandini will be missed. Instead, Baghetti will be in the course, for whom bad luck does not seem to have to end badly. Before Formula 1, Gran Turismo will perform, the Ferrari-Ford duel will be repeated. On the one hand Nino Vaccarella, behind the wheel of Le Mans, on the other the Americans Bob Bondurant and Sears with the Cobra who this year won - for the first time in its history - the category world championship. For Clark the Pergusa circuit is not new; last year he was beaten by Siffert at the end of a good battle.
On Sunday the role of favorite will be up to him by right, and it could not be otherwise after the frightening season culminating in the victory in the German Grand Prix at the Nurburgring. There will also be a particular reason in Enna's competition, the rivalry between the Scot and Brabham. The latter, one of the most fierce supporters of the thesis that he wanted Jim to win just out of sheer luck, overtook his rival in the Swedish race, inflicting him the first defeat of the season. Clark, however, lost not in a direct fight, but only because he had to retire to the seventh lap for bore at the Lotus engine. Now they will be compared again, Clark will do his best to prove to him, if he has not yet been convinced, that good luck is an ingredient in success, and nothing else. Rather, it is sorry for the renunciation of the Ferraris, who had to secure two of the previous editions of the event with Bandini and Surtees. The reason is understandable, however: after a stingy year of satisfaction, the Modena House preferred to dedicate technicians, mechanics and pilots to the preparation of the Italian Grand Prix, scheduled for the first week of September. It will be a test of pride, the attempt to realize on the friendly path the first victory of the season over Lotus and its formidable host. An arduous undertaking, which takes time, a lot of care. Going to Sicily would have meant diverting too many people from the most important task being carried out. Ferrari or not Ferrari, half-island sportsmen will travel to Enna on Sunday. There is Clark, there is Vaccarella, the local idol, the rector of Palermo who for having been able to combine the passion for studies and teaching that of motors has made newspapers around the world talk about himself. They would also go for less, after all. This year to the Englishman Whitemore, of Ford, who went out of the road for losing a wheel, after making sure of his safety, they began to disassemble the car. No, don't think badly. What the heck, everyone wanted to take home a piece in memory. This is the program. Formula 1 cars will complete 60 laps of the circuit (4,797 kilometers long), or 287,865 kilometers. The start will be given at 4:30 p.m. The Gran Turismo will start at 1:00 p.m., with 105 laps to travel over a distance of over 500 kilometers.
On Sunday, August 8, 1965, during the course of the Pergusa Grand Prix reserved for Formula 2 cars, the driver Mario Casoni had taken off the road, had seriously injured a soldier and a photographer on duty and had flown with the car into the waters of the lake around which the ring of the racetrack is tightened. On the evening of August Casoni wins the 5° City Cup of Enna, the international speed race for GT cars that precedes by twenty-four hours the holding of the 4th Grand Prix of the Mediterranean reserved for Formula 1 cars. For Casoni it is a revenge on bad luck, while in Formula 1 the Swiss Siffert manages not only in the amazing feat of beating the fabulous Clark, but even to do it with a car less powerful than that of the opponent. In the Ferragosto races there are three other flights like the one carried out by Casoni the week before, all at speeds above 210 km / h and all ended up with a lot of fright and very little damage to people. During the test for the GTs, in which the averages are over 200 km/h, Nino Vaccarella meticulously plays his share of the comprimario heading for victory when the accident happens to him. Just over a third of the race has just taken place and Vaccarella plays in place with the other favorites, Piper, Casoni, Seras, Latteri and Bondurant. Vaccarella is behind the American's Ford Cobra waiting, he who had been the fastest in the trials, the time to overcome everyone else with his Ferrari Le Mans. At the northwest turn, on the thirty-fourth lap, Vaccarella accelerates to overtake Bondurant; perhaps he is squeezed on one side, however he ends up off the road in a ruin of dust and sheet metal. At the Enna hospital, where he will be hospitalized, the biggest apprehensions about a suspected cervical fracture are escaped by repeated radiographic examinations: no fractures, only bruises. Basically, nothing. Meanwhile, the other two Ferrari Le Mans left in the race, those of Casoni and Piper, are fighting for the conquest of the top two positions leaving Bondurant's Ford Cobra and Seras the consolation of the seats of honor.
In the Formula 1 car race the other two flights are made by the Englishman Mike Spence, who with his Lotus-Climax ends up in the lake getting away with a bath, and New Zealand rider Chris Amon, who flew beyond the external safety net and landed in the lawn below. Both come out unscathed from the scary adventures. On the ring, meanwhile, the infernal carousel unleashed by Clark. Siffert, Hulme, Gardner, Ireland, continues, full of surprises at every lap. One after the other they manage to take the lead, but they only keep it for a very short time so that the competition remains open until the 50th lap. It is at this time that, taking advantage of his best entry into the northwest curve, Siffert repeats his escape last year, earning over Clark the amount of margin that he will then be able to preserve until the end, making the World Champion's angry and continuous attacks vain. In the course of the competition, Baghetti and Biscaldi retire for mechanical tedies. Biscaldi, among other things, on the third lap he is hit in one eye by a pebble projected by a car that precedes him. They also retire Rindt, the Austrian champion, and Rees, who had won eight days before the Formula 2 Grand Prix. The previous speed records were also broken in this competition. On the lap the new record is set by Clark in 1'15"8, at an average of 227.854 km/h (previously the record belonged to Mike Spence in 1'15"9); on the road the new record is set by Siffert at the average of 224.051 km/h, improving the one he himself scored last year with an average Jo Siffert is a regular of the Sicilian events, and his most resounding victories were achieved on the Sicilian slopes: he won the Syracuse Grand Prix and the last edition of the Mediterranean Grand Prix, managing to prevail over the current World Champion Jim Clark. During the award ceremony, the Swiss pilot stated that he would have been equally happy to be able to take second place: he had started, in fact, with this program. When, however, during the race, he saw that the car made him perfect he played all the cards to beat Clark again. Siffert says Clark managed to overtake him in the corner while in the straight he managed to get back to the lead.
"I didn’t expect to win, I don’t know how he managed to get into his head: but when I found myself there, I stayed there".
Although there are still three races to be played, namely the Grand Prix of Italy, Mexico and the United States, the World Championship for Formula 1 drivers and builders is already defined in favor of Jim Clark and Lotus, who this year have shown absolute superiority. Although there is a certain curiosity to see if the uninterrupted series of victories from the Scot will continue, now the interest is beginning to shift decisively on the new race formula that will come into force from 1966. This formula involves the use of single-seater cars with engines of three liters of displacement if without a compressor, or of one and a half liters if supercharged: a first reason for interest therefore lies in this possibility of the return of the compressor, a possibility that appears, at least for the time being, remote malt, since it is not very easy to obtain sufficient power from an Once the 1500 cc compressor engine has been discarded, it remains the three liters with natural power: this means, in principle, twice the power available on the machines of the current Formula 1, i.e. at least 400 horsepower. This power, applied to cars that will weigh less than 800 kilos on the track, gives a result of not even 2 kilos per hp, with the immediate prospect of the slippage of the drive wheels if these are only two; for this reason the automakers are actively studying the four-wheel drive arrangement, which involves considerable technical difficulties and a significant weight for the presence of three differentials and transmission shafts.
The English Coventry-Climax, who pays for the successes achieved and engaged in other activities, has already announced that she will not build engines for the new Formula 1; this fact could eliminate many British contenders, but it probably won’t be the case. In fact, we can already count on the presence of the B.R.M., and it has been said that Ford could intervene so as not to leave the Lotus stationary, or in search of another type of engine. On the Italian side there will be as always the Ferrari: it is thought that a 12-cylinder engine with direct injection has already been prepared, taking advantage of the experiences made with the 6 and the 8 cylinders; but what seems most interesting is that the four-wheel drive solution (as well as the B.R.M.) is thoroughly studied. However, the items that also gave the automatic transmission solution for granted should not be taken into account. However, Ferrari will no longer be the only Italian brand present in Formula 1, because the return of Maserati is confirmed: a limited return, but still sympathetically expected: the Modenese House has in fact resumed the experiences on the 12-cylinder engine developed at the end of the 2500 cc formula and subsequently brought to three liters, and will provide it to Cooper. In this field of collaboration between engine manufacturers and racing car manufacturers, the discourse could expand, since there are other engines in Italy suitable for use in competitions, such as those of the Serenissima, with 8 cylinders, and the 12-cylinder Lamborghini. In short, the new formula, which had initially aroused perplexity and controversy, can also be extremely interesting for the possibility of the participation of some German brand, and of course of the Japanese Honda, which is setting up a 24-cylinder engine.
The Austrian Grand Prix for sports cars and prototypes concludes on Sunday, August 22, 1965 with a clear claim from Ferrari, which sees two of its cars cross the finish line first. The drivers who have the credit for this victory are the Austrian Jochen Rindt, a young man of just 23 years old who technicians believe is destined to become a great ace of the steering wheel (this year he won in pairs with Master Gregory the 24 Hours of Le Mans), on the Ferrari 250 GT, followed by Englishman Mike Parkes, at the wheel of a Ferrari 4400. The winner's time on the distance of 320 kilometers, is 2 hours 2'53"0, at an average of 156.31 km/h. Parkes takes 2 hours, 3’34"0. In third place is Englishman Frank Gardner on Lotus, fourth Chris Amon on Bizzarrini-Grifo and fifth Ireland on Ford-Cobra. The race is staffed by about 20.000 people, with a growing enthusiasm for the electrifying duel that takes place before their eyes between the two English drivers and the Austrian runner. According to the prediction, this race should also have dressed in the English colors. The starting favorite is in fact Mike Spence, who with his Lotus had recorded the best times during the rehearsals. But the car did not correspond to the hopes of the pilot, who after holding his head for 25 laps was forced to stop at the pits for mechanical tedie. Parkes so he takes the head position and keeps it until turn 50, when he in turn has to stop at the boxes to change the tires. This situation takes advantage of Rindt who takes the lead without being threatened For a short time, however, the Austrian driver is not eliminated from the race, and in a dramatic way: this happens when another car hits the race, then skidding fearfully. It is due to his cold blood if Rindt manages to get back on the street while maintaining the leading position until the end of the exciting race. The last thirty laps are the most electrifying, because they give rise to a triangular battle between Rindt, Gardner and Parkes. The circuit record is set by Parkes at lap 75 with a time of 1'10"5, averaging 163.480 km/h, clearly surpassing that set by American Dan Gurney in 1964.
A week later, on Sunday 29 August 1965, Ludovico Scarfiotti, behind the wheel of the Dino-Ferrari, secures the 1965 edition of the European Mountain Championship by winning the Villars-sur-Ollon uphill car race in time-record. There is only one race left - that of Gaisberg - but the most direct opponent of the Italian driver, the German Gerhard Mitter (arrived second), could at most equal the score, but not take away the first place. Scarfiotti, who reached 34 points, after winning all four tests in which he took part, in fact counts a higher number of victories. On the eight kilometers joining in a succession of Ollon curves in Villars, Scarfiotti ran in 4'09"8 at an average of 116 km/h. The previous record belonged to the Swede Jo Bonnier, whom I had set two years ago with a time of 4'23"0 and an average of 109.5 km/h. In the least fast test (if two consecutive ones are played), Scarfiotti records a time of 4'10"5. A total, therefore, of 8'20"3 and a total average of 115.228 km/h. A very brilliant performance, which the albeit excellent Mitter, with his Porsche, could not threaten up close: the German, given on the eve as Scarfiotti's great opponent, achieves a total time of 8'25"5. In third place is Giampiero Biscaldi on Ferrari (8'39"1) and fourth Herbert Demefez on Abarth: the Italian makes the time by 8'44"4, 0.2 seconds better than that of the Swiss Charles Voegele, who runs on Brabham. Sixth, in 8'48"5, the English Peter Westbury, on Ferguson. On the Ollon climb, which has a maximum difference in height of 675 meters, with an average slope of 8.44% and a maximum of 11.5%, Jim Clark found himself uncomfortable. The organizers had insured the Scotsman with 17.000 Swiss francs to get him at the start: the 30.000 spectators wanted to see the new World Champion behind the wheel of his Lotus- Forti, winner in Indianapolis, modified for this test in the mountains. Jim, though, provided only a mediocre performance: he ran in 4'45"3, a time that would have placed him away from the first. It must be said, of course, that Clark is not a man for races like this, where different skills are required than those needed at the Grand Prix or in Indianapolis.
Almost at the end of a particularly lively competitive season, motoring will live on Sunday, September 12, 1965 in Monza, one of the traditionally most interesting days. In fact, the 36th Italian Grand Prix for Formula 1 cars will be held on the famous Lombard track, i.e. the highest annual test that the international calendar assigns to Italy. The race is valid for the World Drivers Championship, but since the title is now in the hands of Jim Clark, who has won all the tests he participated in, it is not in this respect that the Grand Prix presents itself to the attention of fans. In a way, indeed, the race must be considered as an episode in itself, with the premises implicit in the technical situation between the competing teams, in the track of the Monzese autodrome with its different characteristics from each other, and, in the same halo of almost unbeatableness that surrounds the formidable Clark. The sport of the steering wheel is a perfect fusion of mechanical elements and human factors. Sometimes the former prevail over others, or vice versa (perhaps the case with Clark), but ultimately it is from the machine-pilot balance that the conditions of superiority flourish. On the other hand, matter is fragile, subject to a quantity of imponderables that can undo the best skills of man: from this comes the beginning uncertainty of motor racing, which is punctually renewed at each test. The competitive elements implied in this Italian Grand Prix are quickly outlined: Surtees and Graham Hill launch Clark the last challenge on one of the most coveted goals; if the Scotsman is truly worthy of the few great aces of the past, he will also have to prove it in Monza, on that track that saw the triumphs of his predecessors in the highest title But the drivers who have most tenaciously countered their helming victories this season, if they have so far had to bow to Clark's superiority, are determined to interrupt the favorable series, to show that there are no supermen or super-machines. The speech automatically moves to the technical level.
As you know, the current Formula 1 (1500 cc engines, minimum machine weight 450 kilos) is about to expire, after five years of interesting progress (powers, for example, have gone from 180 to almost 400 horsepower). During this period there was alternate prevalence of Ferrari, B.R.M. and Lotus. But it is the latter that closes the 1500 formula with the most positive balance, albeit taking into account that Colin Chapman's team - one of the most brilliant designers of recent years - uses engines built by a specialized company (the Coventry-Climax), while Ferrari is completely autonomous, resulting in greater effort. Now, considering that the initial balance of the mechanical means deployed this season was probably only broken by Jim Clark's great class, given that sometimes a correct modification is enough to reverse the ranking of values, the Italian Grand Prix could offer fans some big news, the chance to witness a race without the usual undisputed ruler, but uncertain and fought up to the last kilometer. The most concrete hopes are especially entrusted to Ferraris: the team of technicians of the Maranello team finally had a few weeks of tranquility to work hard, free from too many competitive commitments that in the middle of the season have fully absorbed the resources of the factory's racing department. Ferrari's effort for the occasion is important: four cars equipped with 12-cylinder and 8-cylinder engines aligned with Monza, with Surtees, Bandini, Vaccarella and Ludovico Scarfiotti. An imposing deployment, therefore, which preludes a massive attack on British teams. In addition to the Ferrari men, the new World Champion Clark with the Lotus and the eternal according to Graham Hill on B.R.M., the picture of the participants includes the usual actors are gigars: Stewart (B.R.M.), Spence and Geki (Lotus), Ginther and Bucknum (Honda), Gurney, Hulme and Baghetti The 36th Italian Grand Prix will be played on 76 laps of the road route (of 5750 meters), for a total of 437 kilometers.
The race record belongs to John Surtees on Ferrari alia average of 205,631 km/h; the one on the ride to the same racer in 1'38"8, that is, at 209.511 km/h. With no major Grand Prix race since the German Grand Prix at the beginning of August, the factory teams have had plenty of time to prepare themselves for the annual high-speed race at Monza, on the 5.75-kilometre road circuit. A very full entry is received and Lotus, Brabham, Ferrari and Centro-Sud field three-car teams, the Ferrari one actually being a four car team on paper, but three in reality. From Maranello come three 12-cylinder Ferraris, numbers 0007 and 0008, that were at the Nurburgring, and 0009, a brand new one; and these are accompanied by 0006 which is the last of the V8 Ferraris. Surtees, Bandini and Scarfiotti are entered on the 12-cylinder cars, though the last-named does not appear and Surtees thus has two cars at his disposal. The 12-cylinder engines have been improved with new cylinder heads having a different inlet-port angle, so that the long intakes, with Lucas fuel-injectors in them, are no longer vertical but inclined slightly outwards. Apart from improved brake callipers, as on the 12-cylinder cars, the V8 which Vaccarella drives is seemingly unchanged. In the official entry list Surtees is entered under number 2, and Scarfiotti under number 8, but in both practice sessions Surtees drives both cars and makes his fastest laps in number 8, which is the latest car. Jack Brabham makes arrangements with the Automobile Club of Milan for Baghetti to drive his car, and form the third member of the team, along with Hulme and Gurney, the American having a 32-valve Coventry-Climax V8 engine in his car. Similarly, Colin Chapman agrees to lend his third Lotus to the young F3 driver Giacomo Russo, who races under the pseudonym of Geki. Clark has Lotus R11, with 32-valve Coventry-Climax engine, Spence has R9, with a flat-crank 16-valve Climax engine, and Geki has old R6, with an early Climax V8 in it.
Although the B.R.M. team has three cars with them they keep the third one as a spare for Graham Hill, who is driving 2516, while Stewart has 2517. The spare car is 2515, rebuilt after its crash at Clermont-Ferrand, and all three are using the latest type of V8 engine and have short exhaust pipes, finishing within the tail of the car, instead of the normal ones that protrude, this shortening presumably being in the interests of power at high rpm. The Cooper team also has three cars, as they have used at previous races, the spare car having a Hewland gearbox instead of the heavy Cooper gearbox; McLaren and Rindt being the drivers. Honda comes with two cars and Bucknum is back as partner to Ginther, the two of them having spent a lot of time in Japan doing testing. The cars are basically the ones used all season but the engine/gearbox unit has been rotated forwards, about the rear mounting, and this allows the engine part of the unit to be lowered some 2.5 to 3 inches, improving the handling enormously. This lowering of the engine only affects the car’s centre-of-gravity by a small amount, but on the modern Grand Prix car every inch counts. Honda’s new engine position means that the exhaust pipes from the front bank of cylinders can no longer run underneath the crankcase, and they are spread out on each side, around the crankcase, and then under the gearbox/final-drive unit, to join together into the lower tail-pipes. This tilting of the engine is such that the rear-most camshaft housing is now the highest point of the unit, and the air intakes point slightly forwards. The repositioning also means some adjustments to the rear suspension, but the principle remains unchanged. Private teams make up the rest of the entry, Bonnier and Siffert with the Walker cars, Ireland and Attwood with the Parnell cars, Frank Gardner with the Willment Brabham, and Gregory, Bussinello and Giorgio Bassi with the Centro-Sud B.R.M. cars. The only non-starters are Anderson, who does not consider it worthwhile rebuilding his Brabham-Climax after his crash at Nurburgring, and Raby who has sold his Brabham-B.R.M.
There is practice for three and a half hours on Friday and Saturday afternoons, which is more than enough, for the Monza circuit does not take much learning, engine power being all-important. On the first afternoon Surtees starts off in car number 2, but the engine goes sour and he switches to number 8, but there is no sign of Scarfiotti. The Lotus team has all three cars out, but Spence and Clark both try the third car, as well as driving their own cars, and Geki has to spend all afternoon standing around and never gets a drive. Baghetti is more fortunate and drives the works of Brabham, but does not seem to master the Hewland gearbox with its gate-less gear-lever. Gurney is in trouble with oil leaking out all over his 32-valve Climax engine, but Clark is fairly happy with his. However, it is Surtees who sets the pace, in the newest flat-12-cylinder Ferrari, with a best time of 1'37"0. Bucknum’s Honda is going well and makes third fastest time, only one-tenth of a second behind Clark, but Ginther’s Honda engine is off-colour and will not give the power it is supposed to. Graham Hill and Stewart are well satisfied with their B.R.M.s, and after everyone has been going round for an hour or more there is a long pause and nobody seems to want to go out. As there is 200.000 lire for FTD all the fast drivers sit back with the idea of having a serious go in the last half-hour. Unfortunately, while they are waiting it begins to rain, and then a steady downpour sets in for the rest of the afternoon, so fast lap times are out of the question and results are decided on in the early part of the afternoon. Gurney goes out in the rain as the Brabham mechanics are still unable to sort out the oil leak, and in fact are still trying to locate its true source; Stewart also goes out in the rain, to find out what it is like, this being his first visit to Monza. Apart from that, practice ends prematurely to all intents and purposes, and early darkness falls on a wet and gloomy paddock. On Saturday Italy is back to normal and bright sunshine keeps the track dry and speeds high. Throughout the afternoon there is a great deal of activity and everyone is circulating as hard as they can go; especially as there are another 200.000 lire for the fastest practice time, and 100.000 lire for the second fastest.
John Surtees is the fastest in the first round of official rehearsals of the 36th Italian Grand Prix. With a time of 1'37"0 the Ferrari driver even set the new track record by beating by 0.3 seconds the previous record he himself had set at the wheel of the car equipped with a 6-cylinder injection engine in the official tests of the Italian Grand Prix two years ago. Surtees achieved the exceptional limit by driving the car equipped with a 12-cylinder engine with which he was enrolled in the race. Ludovico Scarfiottl, on the other hand, will not take part in the Grand Prix: the leaders of the Maranello team have decided to reserve the Italian driver for the last test of the European Mountain Championship which will take place on Sunday, September 19, 1965. The car with which Surtees is expected to run on Sunday, which is the latest version equipped with a 12-cylinder engine output from the Maranello workshops, after some girls reported borety at the power supply and the mechanics were unable to eliminate the inconvenience in time to allow Surtees to return to the track. The evidence was hampered by bad weather. Around 4:00 p.m., in fact, it began to rain and with the wet track no one was able to make useful qualifying times anymore. The most damaged by the rain was Geki Russo who didn’t have time to try out the official Lotus that was intended for him. Colin Chapman, wanting to fine-tune the car perfectly, had it drive first by Clark and then by Spence. When the time came to entrust it to the young Italian pilot, the rain compromised everything. Geki will then have to wait until tomorrow to debut on the English car. World Champion Jim Clark, who arrived at the racetrack at the last minute after fine-tuning the Lotus’ three cars, had little time to compete with Surtees. In a few laps, on board his car equipped with an 8-cylinder 32-valve engine, he still managed to get the second best time of the day: 1'37"8. Surprising the American Bucknum, who on the 12-cylinder Honda was just 0.1 seconds lower than the Scottish steering wheel. Behind the top three got the same 1'38"4 time the Italian driver Lorenzo Bandini (Ferrari with 12-cylinder engine) and the two B.R.M. drivers, Graham Hill and Stewart.
In addition to this it is a requirement that everyone should lap in a time no slower than 15% over that of the second fastest time. While this is not very arduous a requirement it does mean that as the top drivers got faster, the tail-enders have to speed up as well, and the harder the works drivers try the harder the private-team drivers have to try. The Honda team are in trouble, for Ginther’s engine breaks something inside before he has done any laps, and Bucknum’s gearbox goes wrong later in the afternoon, so that the Japanese mechanics have long hours of work ahead of them. Gurney’s oil leak cannot be cured, and while he and Hulme are circulating together Stewart comes out of the pits, catches them, passes them, and goes back into the pits again. Later he has a bit of a flurry with Surtees and outbreaks him for the south turn each lap. Graham Hill is doing an immense number of laps and trying all he knows, making quite fair lap times in the process, but they cannot approach Stewart’s times, done with very little apparent effort. In the middle of the afternoon there is a concerted rush by a number of fast drivers and during this Clark does a fantastic time of 1'35"9, compared with the 1964 lap record of 1'38"8 and the fastest practice lap in 1963 of 1'37"3, both by Surtees with Ferraris. Nobody else breaks 1'36"0, but Surtees and Stewart are in the 1'36"0 bracket. Surtees goes out with Bandini and gives him a tow to try and improve his position on the grid, and Hulme endeavours to do the same for Baghetti, slip-streaming at Monza being all important. While the works drivers are out battling for the 200.000 lire the private team drivers take every opportunity to tuck in behind and profit from the superior speed of the works cars, Ireland, Attwood and Siffert making noticeable advances by this method.
Conditions are ideal all afternoon and there is activity right up to 6:30 p.m., Graham Hill flogging round to the bitter end. The general tempo of the second afternoon is such that everyone is well within the required qualifying time and all twenty-three cars are accepted for the start, even the inexperienced Bassi in the third of the Centro-Sud B.R.M.s. Clark, Surtees and Stewart will start in the front row of the XXXVI Italian Grand Prix, with Graham Hill and Bandini behind them. This decided the best lap times achieved by the individual drivers, confirming the forecasts of the past few days, indeed the scale of values that the racing season for Formula 1 cars has been outlining from race to race. New World Champion Jim Clark, who on Friday had made only a few laps, interrupted by the first rain slushs, on Saturday - in perfect environmental condition - remade himself with two short series of very fast laps, culminating in the time of 1'35"9, which corresponds to the average speed of 215.849 km/h. The Scottish Ace exploit made it clear that the Clark-Lotus pairing is indeed the best of this last season of Formula 1500 racing; the Grand Prix events will also be able to establish a different ranking, but it is still necessary to acknowledge the commitment, we would like to say Clark's dedication to the cause he married. As we said, the Lotus driver has had the title of World Champion in his pocket for a month, and could therefore have given himself the luxury of staying in his farm in Scotland; and instead he is here to put it all out of it. It was necessary to see how he reacted when the speakers announced, at the beginning of today's training sessions, that Surtees had improved the time he got on Friday. Without so many words, Clark slipped back into the #24 car, and after a few lats the best performance was his.
And five minutes before the workouts ended, he still wanted to do a couple of laps to test new drain pipes that Lotus builder Colin Chapman, wanted to experiment with. As always, Clark will still be the man to beat on Sunday. Meanwhile, John Surtees demonstrated the great progress made by the 12-cylinder 12-cylinder engine, settling in second place in the time rankings just 0.2 seconds behind Clark. Surtees had some boredom at the car that at first was entrusted to him (the one bearing, the #2); then he took the wheel of the #8, on which Scarflotti was supposed to run (but on Thursday Ferrari had decided to give up deploying a fourth car, sacrificing the European mountain champion 1965) and with this car he got the excellent time of 1'36"1. In third place the young Stewart (B.R.M.) in 1'36"6. They then follow Graham Hill (B.R.M.) in 1'37"1. Bandini (Ferrari 12 cylinders) in 1'37"2, Bucknum (Honda) in 1'37"3 and gradually all the others. It is to be noted, confirming the great technical advances made by the manufacturers, that as many as eleven drivers improved the official record on the 5750-meter lap achieved last year by Surtees in 1'38"8 to an average of 209.514 km/h. As always, however, the outcome of the tests has a barely indicative value; it is clear that on Sunday the fight for victory will remain limited to the five or six drivers that the trainings have highlighted, but what their final position will be is impossible to predict: However, one has the impression that the balance of the mechanical means is today such as to ensure a very hard-fought and The challenge to Clark and Lotus can have exciting developments; Ferrari men have confidence that it can be solved in their favor. Surtees has meticulously prepared himself and the 12-cylinder engine provides a perfect performance. But beware of Jackie Stewart, Scottish like Clark.
On Sunday morning the skies cloud and rain begins, turning into a deluge that enveloped the Italian track, but by mid-day the rain has gone, the air clears and the sun dries everything. Even the distant Alps can be seen quite clearly, a rare occurrence in September. The race is due to start at 3:30 p.m. and runs for 76 laps, a distance of 437 kilometres, and well before time the 23 competing cars are wheeled out onto the track. The Lotus team are unchanged, Clark having the 32-valve Coventry-Climax engine, and Geki practises on the Saturday afternoon with satisfying results. The Brabham team are not so happy as Gurney’s 32-valve engine cannot be cured of its oil-leaking tendencies and it is removed from Gurney’s car and an old engine substituted. Surtees is using the latest of the 12-cylinder Ferraris, but as he goes out to the starting grid the hydraulic mechanism of the clutch operation began to give trouble. The other Ferrari team drivers are in the cars used in practice, as are the B.R.M. drivers, but Rindt is driving the spare Cooper as his own car has broken a valve towards the end of practice. After an all-night session the Honda mechanics have got both engine units reassembled, and they join the others on the grid. The clutch operation on Surtees’ Ferrari appears to have corrected itself and the whole field is lined up on the dummy-grid. At the signal to move forward onto the proper starting grid all 23 cars are in order, with engines running and 1st gear engaged; a pause on the starting line for Clark, Surtees and Stewart in the front row, and then down goes the Italian flag. Clark spins the Lotus wheels and makes smoke like a dragster, and Surtees gets away slowly, his clutch playing-up again, while Graham Hill does a meteoric start from the second row and shoots between Clark and Surtees with inches to spare. The whole field makes a magnificent sight and sound as they surge forward, the total of 200 tiny cylinders working away at peak power.
Everyone at the start waits eagerly while the scream of the exhausts disappear towards the woods at Lesmo, and then they go singing down the back straight. Suddenly they are with us again, pouring out of the South Curve in a solid mass, with Clark and Stewart side-by-side, the Lotus a few inches in front of the B.R.M., but right behind comes Hill, Bandini, Siffert, Spence, Gurney and the rest, with poor Surtees in 14th position, his clutch slipping throughout the opening lap. By the end of the second lap the field has divided into two groups, the first led by Clark, with Hill, Stewart, Bandini, Siffert, Spence and Gurney all in a collective slipstream, and the second group led by McLaren, with Ireland and Ginther inches behind, followed by the rest. Surtees is in this lot, but now the clutch has gone completely solid and he is changing gear without it, but at least he can start serious racing and in no time at all he leaves the second group and chases after the leaders. Clark and the two B.R.M. drivers are sharing the lead and Gurney is hanging on grimly, using their slip-stream to make up for his shortage of power. Bandini, Spence and Siffert are being sucked along, the Swiss driver doing a skilful bit of manoeuvring on the opening lap to get in amongst the works drivers. Surtees makes a remarkable recovery and by the sixth lap he is up with the leading group and working his way in amongst them. The pace is more than Siffert or his car can be expected to keep up, and he begins to slip back, but he is way ahead of all the other runners, who are still in a pretty solid bunch, the Parnell cars fighting it out with the works Coopers and Hondas. Clark and Stewart continue to share the lead, but even so Hill and Gurney are close enough to be touching all the time and Surtees is occasionally in between them.
With a clear track Surtees has caught the leading group with ease, they being busy fouling each other up, but once with them he cannot hope to get away, for everyone's in everyone else’s slip-stream. At ten laps the situation is unchanged and Clark crosses the line mere inches ahead of Stewart, with Surtees third, and next lap the crowd shrieks with delight for the red nose of the Ferrari is actually in front of Stewart’s dark green B.R.M. and Clark is now third. However, by the time this fact has been noted the lead has changed once more and Stewart is in front again, where he stays for the next six laps, but it is a precarious lead for the others are in a bunch all round him at times. Meanwhile the rest of the field is chopping and changing positions as much as the leaders, and Bucknum has his Honda at the head of the pack, with McLaren’s Cooper alongside. Vaccarella, Bonnier and Gardner have lost contact with this group and are racing in a tight trio, and the Centro-Sud cars are bringing up the rear, though they are one short as Bassi has retired, soon to be followed by Baghetti, who is fumbling gear-changes and over-revving the engine of his Brabham until it breaks. Bucknum’s Honda engine now shows signs of failing, no longer pulling maximum rpm down the back straight, and he pulls into the pits to investigate, and Ireland takes command of the group, with Geki right behind him. This is still anybody’s race, just as is the leading group’s, and both Parnell cars are going splendidly, Attwood being in the thick of things. This group is urging themselves along at a higher rate than any of them would have gone on their own, with the result that they are slowly catching Siffert, who is completely on his own, having lost his tow from the works cars at the front of the race. Bucknum’s Honda does a few more laps but then returns to the pits and retires.
The 36° Italian Automotive Grand Prix brought to the fore a new champion, that Jackie Stewart who, in his first year of operation in Formula 1, had already proven to possess all the numbers to become a champion. He only needed the sanction of a great victory, and the victory graduated him to Monza, with full merit. It is known that in motorsport the claims are taken if the skill, the human skills are coupled with a higher performance of the mechanical vehicle. In the most important Italian race, the young Scottish driver had at his disposal a car - the B.R.M. - which in all likelihood is the most efficient Formula 1 car of 1965 (Clark won the World Championship filling with his huge class the slight yield gap between his Lotus and the rival car); but the technical superiority would not have been enough without the great resources of the twenty It can be said that the road was paved for him by the retirement of Surtees and Clark, and finally by the only mistake made by Graham Hill (also on B.R.M.) two laps from the end, when to overcome at all costs the teammate was forced to haggle the parabolic curve losing contact with Stewart. But it would be free to argue that it was pure luck. First of all because the Scotsman has consistently remained in the top positions, attacking on several occasions and without being intimidated by the etched company of the most experienced opponents. If the race, rather than on time, had been played in points, lap by lap, Jackie Stewart would have turned out to be even more clearly first: he was in charge overall for 39 laps, against 19 laps for Clark, 17 for Graham Hill and one for Surtees. It is a simple curiosity, but of a certain interest, if it were nothing more than to indicate the activities and merits of the winner of this exciting Grand Prix of Italy. It was a magnificent fight for over half the race, with half a dozen cars - Lotus, B.R.M., Ferrari, Brabham - in tumultuous fight at 210 km/h, and Clark, Graham Hill, Stewart, Surtees surpassing each other all the time, with a relentless decision.
And Gurney and Bandini who didn't give in one hand. Until a certain moment, it seemed that each of those pilots, of those flops, had the opportunity to tick it; in reality the momentary balance of forces was so obvious, that only the intervention of an unpredictable cause could have broken it. As it actually happened when he gave up the clutch on Surtees’ Ferrari, and later came out of power to Jim Clark’s engine. It is the Imponderables who at first glance seem unfair to those who hit; yet car racing also draw their charm from this. It is useless to hide that the most scorching disappointment came from the abandonment of outgoing world champion John Surtees. Ferrari had prepared for the Italian Grand Prix with particular commitment, aiming for a prestigious victory that at least in part would repay her for the bitterness and bad luck of this season. Unfortunately, the efforts for the fans of the Maranello team technicians were not enough to reverse the fate of the long confrontation with the English cars, even if the fourth place of the generous Lorenzo Bandini is by no means despicable. Now we will talk about it again this year, with the new Formula 1, which will be much more challenging than the current one, to obtain more powers from the engines than the current doubles. Of the other protagonists of the day, we remember the usual spectacle offered by the class of Jim Clark, who fought - as long as his Lotus held - as if the World Championship was still to be decided. But the two pilots of the B.R.M. they weren't easy customers: even if Clark had stayed in the running, we don't really know how he would have fared in the decisive final stages. However, the spectacular lap record at 214.730 km/h remains to his credit. Dan Gurney, third on the Brabham, was also very good. The Italian drivers fought with alternating luck: apart from the good Lorenzo Bandini, the best impression was given to the Formula 1 debut of Geki Russo, at the wheel of an official Lotus, which - before retiring due to a mechanical failure - he had managed to fit with authority into the center group.
Baghetti was knocked out after just 12 laps; Vaccarella fought honestly but without particular prominence, and the no longer very young Bussinello had the satisfaction of completing the race. But only the British riders remain in the foreground. For Jackie Stewart, a dream that has been cherished for many years has come true: to win a Grand Prix, a test of that World Championship which is the most important event in motor racing. Stewart, the son of a garage owner in Berwich, Southern Scotland, learned to drive as a child, enjoying himself arranging customers' cars in his father's garage. In 1961 he made his debut in the formula 3 of 1000 cc and last year he was hired by the B.R.M., which had not renewed the contract to the already successful American driver Richie Ginther. Within a year, Stewart made himself known on international circuits as a confident and determined driver, able to fit into the small number of riders who have dominated Formula 1 competitions for three or four years: Jim Clark, John Surtees and Graham Hill. . The next goal will perhaps be the 1966 World Championship. The Italian sportsmen warmly applauded Stewart's victory and, after the award ceremony, they huddled around him to get an autograph, to touch his shoulder, to say good. There were many, too many, and at one point the Scot made a shot worthy of his B.R.M. to take refuge in the Dunlop bus. He settled into a small armchair in the rear panoramic sitting room, calm and relaxed. Around him are executives of the house, British journalists and Jim Clark. They are both Scottish, they are friends, they also hang out outside racing. They esteem each other and are particularly united precisely by the fact that they were born in the same land. Stewart even lined the cockpit of his racing car with the colobus of the clan: red, green and yellow, in large squares and painted a stripe with the same colors on the white pilot helmet. The clan, one of the most famous and oldest in Scotland, is that of the Stuarts. Clark and Stewart, seated side by side, chat closely together, pause to toast with a glass of champagne to Jackie's success, get up to politely greet the owner of the B.R.M. They start talking again.
"Next Saturday I will race at Oulton Park in Formula 1".
Says Stewart and Clark, promptly, responds:
"In England you will not win. You beat me today, don't expect too much".
And they both burst into cheerful laughter. A few quick questions to the winner, who answers without hesitation, under the benevolent eyes of his companion, who has long been accustomed to the boredom of celebrity. When did he realize he could impose himself?
"On the penultimate lap, when Graham Hill swerved in the parabolic curve".
How does she feel?
"Very well, beautifully".
Do you dedicate this victory to someone, perhaps to his wife?
"No, to myself".
The big bus that Dunlop carries around the European racetracks seems to have been swallowed up in the middle of the storm. The reason? Inside take refuge Jackie Stewart, Jim Clark and Graham Hill, that is the winner and two of the protagonists of the 36th Italian Grand Prix, while outside the Italian and foreign fans who want an autograph from the new champion and his two at all costs companions. The spectators liked Stewart's victory a lot. Stewart is a nice guy, with a light-hearted air. Piccolo, with two lively eyes, the word ready, seems to be at ease in every situation, when he drives his B.R.M. and when he receives with a bow the compliments of Mrs Jean Stanley, owner of the British team and a thousand other industries.
"I never get too excited, but today I feel happy. I had been hoping to finish first in a Grand Prix for years, but in 1965 John Surtees, and lately my friend Jim Clark, didn't let me. Now that I have started I just hope to continue".
A sip of champagne served in the lounge set in the Dunlop coach to celebrate the victory, a toast with Clark to the health of the common homeland, Scotland and finally the tranquility of the B.R.M. garage, with the pleasure of taking off the suit and putting on a clean suit . In a corner rests the white helmet, always the same for years, with the bright colors of the famous Scottish family. Speaking of suits, teams and drivers have decided to adopt those rules of the international sports car regulations that prescribe the use of fireproof clothing in racing. This is a very appropriate precautionary measure for obvious reasons. With the body protected from fire, you can also escape from very serious situations with minor damage. The suits are light blue or blue, except for Jim Clark's, who preferred it white. Sunday, however, the Scotsman, after having it mass, he still wore a light blue normal suit, just to conform to his colleagues. Meanwhile John Surtees, who according to custom brought his father, mother and wife to Monza, hoped, after a bad year, in a success, he wanted a prestigious victory, for himself and for Ferrari, presents himself to the dark-faced reporters.
"1965 is completely negative for me. In Monza, on a track that I know by heart, I was hoping to stop the black series. No way. Before leaving I felt that there was something wrong with the clutch. The defect got worse as we continued, but in reality it is as if I had not even been able to start running".
The other Ferrari man, Lorenzo Bandini, was quite satisfied with fourth place.
"I made a good comeback in the first part of the race and then I managed to stay among the only four competitors who finished full laps".
Geki Russo is also happy, making his debut in Formula 1.
"Chapman's Lotus is a splendid car, the inconvenience that stopped me was an occasional one. I didn't want to force myself, but I think that with Clark and Chapman as teachers I could go a long way in Formula 1 too. Maybe I'll go to England".